National macroprudential authorities have been established following the ESRB Recommendation on the macroprudential mandate of national authorities (ESRB/2011/3). In accordance with the Capital Requirements Directive (CRDIV), Member States are also required to have national designated authorities. The ESRB periodically publishes a list of national macroprudential authorities and national designated authorities in EU Member States.
National authorities are required to notify the ESRB of their macroprudential measures in accordance with the Capital Requirements Directive (CRDIV), the Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR) and various ESRB recommendations.
The ESRB periodically publishes two overviews of macroprudential measures.
The first overview, “Overview of national macroprudential measures”, includes all types of current and past measures. The second overview, “Overview of national capital-based measures”, includes only currently active capital-based measures that apply to the systemically important institutions in a Member State.
National authorities should use the common ESRB/ECB/EBA notification templates when notifying the ESRB of macroprudential measures (including reciprocating measures).
The capital conservation buffer (CCoB) is a capital buffer consisting of 2.5% of a bank’s total exposures. It is met using an additional amount of Common Equity Tier 1 capital.
The countercyclical capital buffer (CCyB) is a macroprudential instrument designed to help counter pro-cyclicality in the financial system.
Global systemically important institutions (G-SIIs) and, subject to national discretion, other systemically important institutions (O-SIIs) must fulfil supplementary requirements concerning the amount of Common Equity Tier 1 capital they are required to hold as a buffer.
The systemic risk buffer aims to address long-term, non-cyclical systemic risks that are not covered by the Capital Requirements Regulation.
Other macroprudential measures include those taken under Articles 124 and 164 of the Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR) to target systemic risks in the real estate sector. They also include macroprudential measures that are not harmonised by Union law.
The reciprocation of macroprudential measures enhances the effectiveness and consistency of macroprudential policy in the EU. It also contributes to a level playing field in the Single Market.