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Payments and markets glossary

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C

cap (limit)
A quantitative limit on the funds or securities transfer activity of a participant in a system. Limits may be set by each individual participant or imposed by the entity managing the system. Limits can be placed on system participants’ net debit and/or net credit positions.
card (payment card)
A device that can be used by its holder to pay for goods and services or to withdraw money.
card acquirer
See
acquirer (card acquirer)
card issuer
A financial institution that makes payment cards available to cardholders, authorises transactions at point-of-sale (POS) terminals or automated teller machines (ATMs) and guarantees payment to the acquirer for transactions that are in conformity with the rules of the relevant scheme.
card scheme
A technical and commercial arrangement set up to serve one or more brands of card which provides the organisational, legal and operational framework necessary for the functioning of the services marketed by those brands. See also
four-party card scheme
three-party card scheme
card with a cash function
A card enabling the cardholder to withdraw cash from a cash dispenser and/or deposit cash. The cash function is usually combined with a payment function. See also
cash card
card with a credit function
See
credit card (card with a credit function)
card with a debit function
See
debit card (card with a debit function)
cardholder
A person to whom a payment card is issued and who is authorised to use that card.
cash
Banknotes and coins.
cash advance at POS terminal
See
cashback (cash advance at POS terminal)
cash card
A card which has only a cash function. See also
card with a cash function
cash dispenser
An electromechanical device that permits authorised users to withdraw banknotes, typically using machine-readable plastic cards. See also
automated teller machine (ATM)
cash settlement agent
The entity whose assets or liabilities are used to settle the payment obligations arising from funds transfer systems or from securities transfers within a central securities depository (CSD). Commercial banks and central banks are typical cash settlement agents.
cashback (cash advance at POS terminal)
A transaction at a POS terminal in which a cardholder asks the retailer to add an amount to the total purchase sum paid for by card or other means in order to receive that amount in cash along with the purchase. See also
point-of-sale (POS) terminal
CCBM
See
correspondent central banking model (CCBM)
CCBM2
See
Collateral Central Bank Management (CCBM2)
CCP
See
central counterparty (CCP)
central bank money
Liabilities of a central bank, in the form of either banknotes or bank deposits held at a central bank, which can be used for settlement purposes.
central counterparty (CCP)
An entity that interposes itself, in one or more markets, between the counterparties to the contracts traded, becoming the buyer to every seller and the seller to every buyer and thereby guaranteeing the performance of open contracts.
central counterparty (CCP) link
An arrangement between two central counterparties (CCPs) that allows the provision of central counterparty services for trades performed by the participants of those two CCPs, without requiring those participants to become members of both CCPs.
central securities depository (CSD)
An entity that: 1) enables securities transactions to be processed and settled by book entry; 2) provides custodial services (e.g. the administration of corporate actions and redemptions); and 3) plays an active role in ensuring the integrity of securities issues. Securities can be held in a physical (but immobilised) form or in a dematerialised form (whereby they exist only as electronic records).
chaining
A method used in certain transfer systems for the processing of orders. This involves altering the sequence in which transfer orders are processed in order to increase the number or value of transfers that can be settled with the available funds and/or securities balances (or the available credit or securities lending lines). See also
optimisation routine
charge card
See
delayed debit card (charge card)
cheque
A written order from one party (the drawer) to another (the drawee; normally a credit institution) requiring the drawee to pay a specified sum on demand to the drawer or a third party specified by the drawer.
chip card (smart card)
A card with an embedded microprocessor (chip) loaded with the information necessary to enable payment transactions.
clearing
The process of transmitting, reconciling and, in some cases, confirming transfer orders prior to settlement, potentially including the netting of orders and the establishment of final positions for settlement. Sometimes this term is also used (imprecisely) to cover settlement. For the clearing of futures and options, this term also refers to the daily balancing of profits and losses and the daily calculation of collateral requirements. See also
settlement
clearing fund
A fund composed of assets contributed by participants in a central counterparty (CCP) or by providers of guarantee arrangements that may be used to meet the obligations of a defaulting CCP participant. In certain circumstances, it may also be used to settle transactions and cover losses and liquidity pressures resulting from such defaults. A clearing fund serves as insurance against unusual price movements not covered by the margin calculation in the event of a member defaulting.
clearing house
A common entity (or a common processing mechanism) through which participants agree to exchange transfer instructions for funds, securities or other instruments. In some cases, a clearing house may act as a central counterparty for those participants, thereby taking on significant financial risks. See also
central counterparty
clearing member
A member of a clearing house. See also
direct clearing member
general clearing member
non-clearing member
clearing system
A set of rules and procedures whereby financial institutions present and exchange data and/or documents relating to transfers of funds or securities to other financial institutions at a single location (e.g. a clearing house). These procedures often include a mechanism for calculating participants’ mutual positions, potentially on a net basis, with a view to facilitating the settlement of their obligations in a settlement system. See also
clearing
clearing house
netting
close-out netting
A special form of netting which follows certain contractually agreed events (such as the opening of insolvency proceedings), whereby all existing obligations are accelerated such that they become due immediately. See also
default
netting
co-branding
An arrangement whereby a product or service is associated with more than one brand.
COGESI
Contact Group on Euro Securities Infrastructures
collateral
An asset or third-party commitment that is used by a collateral provider to secure an obligation vis-à-vis a collateral taker. See also
collateral pool
pledge
repurchase agreement
Collateral Central Bank Management (CCBM2)
A common platform for Eurosystem collateral management, establishing efficient collateral mobilisation and management procedures for both domestic and cross-border collateral.
collateral management
Collateral management includes the process used to control the correspondence between the market value of the relevant collateral and the required value of that collateral. It generally also includes the generation and processing of collateral transfers.
collateral pool
A collateralisation technique that enables an institution to make collateral available to a counterparty without allocating it to a specific transaction. Antonym:
earmarking
commercial bank money
Commercial bank liabilities that take the form of deposits held at a commercial bank which can be used for settlement purposes. See also
loro account
nostro account
committed facility
A facility (e.g. a credit line or a repo facility) whereby the provider is contractually required to advance funds in specified circumstances. See also
collateral pool
loss-sharing agreement
common depository
An entity, usually a credit institution, that provides the two international central securities depositories (ICSDs) with safekeeping and asset servicing for physical papers (“global notes”) covering all or part of an issue of international debt instruments (e.g. Eurobonds). See also
specialised depository
confirmation (trade confirmation)
A process whereby the terms of a trade are verified either by directly involved market participants or by a central entity.
contactless payment
A payment transaction using a card or other means where the payer and the merchant (and/or their equipment) are at the same physical location and where the communication between the portable device and the point of sale (POS) takes place through contactless technology.
contractual settlement date accounting
A contractual commitment by a custodian to credit and debit a customer’s cash and securities accounts, as appropriate, on the date on which the customer’s contract with its counterparty is due for settlement (i.e. the contractual settlement date), regardless of whether settlement has actually occurred. Such crediting and debiting is normally provisional and does not become final if settlement does not occur within a time period established by the custodian.
Core Principles for Systemically Important Payment Systems (CPSIPS)
International standards for systemically important payment systems developed by the G10 central banks in order to guide the oversight activities of central banks with regard to payment systems of systemic importance. For details, see the report “Core Principles for Systemically Important Payment Systems”, BIS, January 2001.
corporate action (corporate event)
An action or event decided by the issuer of a security which has an impact on the holders of that security. This may be optional, in which case those holders have a choice (for example, they may have the right to purchase more shares, subject to conditions specified by the issuer). Alternatively, it may be mandatory, whereby those holders have no choice (e.g. in the case of a dividend payment or stock split). Corporate actions can relate to cash payments (e.g. dividends or bonuses) or the registration of rights (subscription rights, partial rights, splits, mergers, etc.).
corporate event
See
corporate action (corporate event)
correspondent banking
An arrangement whereby one bank (the settlement or service-providing bank) makes or receives payments (potentially performing other banking services in addition) on behalf of another bank (the customer or user bank). See also
loro account
nostro account
tiering arrangement
correspondent central banking model (CCBM)
A mechanism established by the European System of Central Banks with the aim of enabling counterparties to use eligible collateral in a cross-border context. In the CCBM, national central banks act as custodians for one another. This means that each national central bank has a securities account in its securities administration for each of the other national central banks and the ECB.
counterparty risk
The risk that between the time a transaction is agreed and the time it is actually settled, the counterparty to that transaction will fail to fulfil its obligations.
CPMI
Committee on Payments and Market Infrastructures
CPSIPS
See
Core Principles for Systemically Important Payment Systems (CPSIPS)
credit cap
See
credit limit (credit cap)
credit card (card with a credit function)
A card that enables cardholders to make purchases and/or withdraw cash up to a prearranged credit limit. The credit granted may be either settled in full by the end of a specified period, or settled in part, with the balance taken as extended credit (on which interest is usually charged).
credit limit (credit cap)
A limit on the credit exposure which a payment system participant incurs either vis-à-vis another participant (a “bilateral credit limit”) or vis-à-vis all other participants (a “multilateral credit limit”) as a result of receiving payments which have not yet been settled.
credit line
A commitment, made in advance by a given entity, to grant credit on demand to another entity subject to agreed terms.
credit risk
The risk that a counterparty will not settle the full value of an obligation – neither when it becomes due, nor at any time thereafter. Credit risk includes replacement cost risk and principal risk. It also includes the risk of the settlement bank failing. See also
principal risk
replacement cost risk
credit transfer
A payment instrument allowing a payer to instruct the institution with which its account is held to transfer funds to a beneficiary.
cross-border payment
A payment where the financial institutions of the payer and the payee are located in different countries.
cross-border settlement
Settlement that takes place in a country (or currency area) in which one or both parties to the transaction are not located. Antonym:
domestic settlement
cross-currency settlement risk
See
foreign exchange settlement risk (cross-currency settlement risk)
cross-margining agreement
An agreement between two central counterparties (CCPs) which makes it possible to limit the margin requirements for institutions participating in both CCPs by regarding the positions and collateral of such participants as one portfolio.
cross-system settlement
The settlement of a payment or securities transaction through a link between two separate payment systems or securities settlement systems.
crypto-asset
An asset recorded in digital form and enabled by the use of cryptography that is not and does not represent a financial claim on, or a liability of, any identifiable entity.
CSD
See
central securities depository (CSD)
CSD link
A set of technical and legal arrangements between two central securities depositories (CSDs) for the cross-system transfer of securities. See also
direct link
indirect link
investor CSD
issuer CSD
relayed link
custodian
An entity, often a credit institution, which provides securities custody services to its customers (cf. depository). See also
global custodian
custody
The holding and administration, by an entity entrusted with such tasks, of securities and other financial instruments owned by a third party.
custody risk
The risk of a loss being incurred on securities in custody as a result of a custodian’s insolvency, negligence, misuse of assets, fraud, poor administration or inadequate record-keeping. See also
custodian
custody
cut-off time
The deadline set by a system (or an agent bank) for the acceptance of transfer orders for a given settlement cycle.